Dear students and colleagues,

It has become popular in certain circles to criticize Hering and Kent
and call the postulates known as Hering's laws spurious. Some say that
none of Hering's laws can be found in Hahnemann's writings. Others admit
that the reversal of symptoms is found in The Chronic Diseases. Now a major
target is the maxim from within to without. They say that healing does not
progress from with to without because the internal and external cure happen
at the "same time". The opine that all externalizations are the fruitless
efforts of a diseased vital force that have nothing to do with healing and
are only the outcome of improper treatments.

Over the years Hahnemann noticed that the vital force tried to remove
disease from the more important internal organs by setting up local
affections in the less important external parts of the body. At the same
time, the vital force was willing to sacrifice a great deal of its energy,
humours and tissues in an effort to preserve the organism through crisis.
These efforts as self-healing cannot cure a chronic disease.

During the processes of homoeopathic healing the primary action
replaces the natural disease with stronger but temporary medicinal
diseases. The secondary action of the vital force seeks to remove the
remedy disease from without while restoring homeostasis within with renewed
vitality. During the homœopathic healing process the action of the vital
force is similar to its actions in the natural disease but it is not the
same. In the place of painful and unproductive crises there appears
definite curative signs associated with proper direction of cure.

Hering wrote about the direction of cure in the Preface to the American
edition of The Chronic Diseases in 1845. He that there was a "law of order"
which Lippe called it the "law of cure" and Kent called "Hering's laws".
The essence of Hering's postulates are based on Hahnemann's teachings on
the development of psora and the reversal of the order of the symptoms
while under antipsoric treatment. Vide The Chronic Diseases, Theoretical
part, p 230.

"The latest symptoms that have been added to a chronic disease which
has been left to itself (and thus has not been aggravated by medical
mismanagement) are always the first to yield in an antipsoric treatment;
but the oldest ailments and those which have been most constant and
unchanged, among which are the constant local ailments, are the last to
give way; and this is only effected, when all the remaining disorders have
disappeared and the health has been to all other respects almost totally

In The Chronic Diseases (p. 203-204) Hahnemann wrote that a when a
well chosen remedy is acting the patient may feel a moderate headache, sore
throat, diarrhea, pains in one part or other that they experienced in the
past. This is no reason to give a new remedy because these are a "sign that
this medicine acts deeply into the very essence of this disease, and that
consequently it will be more effective in the future". The return of old
unresolved symptoms is closely related to the maxim of the reversal of the
symptoms but the situation is slightly different. In the reversal of
symptoms the signs just disappear in order, while in the return of old
symptoms old unresolved diseases states and suppressions reappear before
being removed.

Hahnemann wrote that it is essential to treat the internal psora rather
than suppress the external lesion. He stated the healer should "first of
all treat the internal malady, whereby the cutaneous eruption will, at the
same time be removed and destroyed and all the subsequent innumerable life
long chronic suffering springing from the Psora be prevented or, if the are
already embittering the life of the patient, be cured." (Page 47,
Theoretical Part, Chronic Diseases). Statements like this have been taken
out of context to say that internal and external healing takes place all at

The meaning of these statements are that one should treat the internal
psora because this will treat the external eruption at the same time
without external treatment. This statement does not mean that the newest
(the most serious developed secondary organic pathology) and oldest
symptoms (the original skin eruptions) are healed at the exact same time.
Let us study this maxim in its original paradigm, the cure of psora.

In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann taught that the primary stage of
psora began with an infection of the skin that dynamically permeated the
human organism with internal psora and then produces a skin eruption. This
external eruption acts as a "pressure value" that slows the advance of the
internal malady. If the psoric lesion is suppressed or spontaneously leaves
the skin, the internal psora enters a latent stage that is associated with
certain functional symptoms. As the patient ages, or if they are placed
under undue physical and mental stress, the internal psora breaks out into
secondary psora associated with organic pathology in the vital organs.

1. The 1st stage of psora includes the primary symptoms of psora on the
SKIN, the most external part of the body. This appears as innumerable kinds
of infectious skin eruptions. Hahnemann wrote "The local symptoms has it
place on the least dangerous part of the body, the external skin" (CD, page

2. The 2nd stage is latent psora which produces systemic functional
symptoms. Hahnemann recorded 60 symptoms of latent psora in The Chronic
Diseases. This includes paleness of the face, bad smell from the mouth,
perspiration, tedious catarrhal discharges, obstruction of the nose, cough,
breathing difficulties, digestive upsets, flushes of heat, falling out of
hair, twitching, itching of anus, dark urine, painful joints, dry skin,
itching vesicles here and there, etc.

3. The 3rd stage is secondary psora where psora transforms from
functional states to organic pathology disorders involving damage to the
major vital organs and systems. Hahnemann list around 400 secondary
symptoms and over 100 pathologic states including consumption, lung
disease, heart disease, kidney disease, diabetes, bone diseases, intestinal
diseases, stomach diseases, liver diseases, diseases of sexual organs,
paralysis, strokes, convulsions, epilepsy, deafness, dropsy, goiter,
cancer, etc., etc.

Now according to the reversal of symptoms:

1. The 1st set of symptoms to be removed is the organic pathology in the
internal vital organs as these secondary symptoms are the last to appear.
This would include the 400 symptoms and 100 organic pathological states of
secondary psora. This shows that the chronological reversal progress begins
within the most important internal vital organs and systems.

2. The 2nd set of symptoms to be removed would be the general
functional states associated with the 60 symptoms of latent psora. The cure
carries on from the functionally disturbed internal systems toward the more
external skin, the first and oldest symptom. Thus the reversal of the
symptoms continues with the movement of the disease from organic pathology
in the vital organs to the systemic functional changes. Hahnemann wrote
"When the treatment is about half completed, the diminished disease
commences to return into the state of latent Psora; and the symptoms grow
weaker...." (CD. page 231)

3. The 3rd set of symptoms to be removed is the eruptions on the skin
as these were the first to develop and are the oldest most external and
least dangerous symptoms. The direction of the cure is from within to
without ending less important and less dangerous external lesions on the
skin. If the skin symptoms were suppressed they may return as this is
an aspect of the maxim of the return of the old unresolved symptoms. Once
the external skin eruptions are completely cured the entire internal and
external psora is cured.

The disease symptoms developed from stages 1 to 2 to 3. This means the
disease direction is from the most external, less important skin to the
more important functional systemic symptoms, to the most important organic
pathology in the inner vital organs. The reversal of symptoms is from stage
3 to 2 to 1. The healing direction is from the most important organic
pathology of inner vital organs to the less important functional states, to
the least dangerous external skin lesions.

The direction from above to below may be involve in the healing process,
especially if the original symptoms began in the lower parts of the body
and then moved upward. They would naturally pass from above to below as the
developmental order of the symptoms are reversed. Therefore, the reversal
of the order of the symptoms, the movement from within to without, the
return of old symptoms, and the pains being relieved from above to below
come together because they are all part of the same healing process.

Hering wrote in his Preface to the Chronic Diseases (p. 8) that the
cure is marked by an improvement in the mind and general state of
well-being. "Hence it is that Hahnemann inculcates with so much care the
important rule to attend to the moral symptoms, and to judge of the degree
of homœopathic adaptation, existing between the remedy and the disease, by
the improvement which takes place in the moral condition, and in the
general well-being of the patient".

This observation has its origin in Hahnemann's Organon in aphorism 253.
Hahnemann wrote "When there is a ever-so-slight beginning of improvement,
the patient will demonstrate a greater degree of comfort, increasing
composure, freedom of spirit, and increased courage - kind of returning of
naturalness". Hahnemann also wrote that the "strength of the patient" ought
to continually "increase" from the commencement to end of the treatment
(CD, page 233).

There are 8 observations of the direction of cure found in Hahnemann and
Hering's writings.

1. Pains are removed from above to below
2. Diseases are removed from within to without
3. Symptoms are removed from the more important to the less important areas.
4. Symptoms are reversed from the newest to the oldest.
5. During the process of cure old unresolved symptoms may arise.
6. An amelioration takes place in the mental condition of the patient.
7. The strength and vitality of the patient increases during treatment.
8. The opposite of these progressions are signs the disease is getting
worse or is being suppressed. That is the pains travel from below to above;
from without to within, from the less important to the more important; the
symptoms increase; complaints the patient never had appear; the mental
state gets worse; and the patient gets weaker. These are sign that the
disease is getting worse or is being suppressed.

Sometimes persons try to use examples where cure did not follow the
direction of cure to refute the entire teaching. Hahnemann made it clear
that the direction of cure can be disrupted by drugging and suppression and
that sometimes "constant local ailments, are the last to give way; and this
is only effected, when all the remaining disorders have disappeared and the
health has been to all other respects almost totally restored." This is the
source of the exceptions to the rule.

The eight factor of healing are interrelated and represent different
facets of one total phenomenon. It is not easy to say where one maxim ends
and another begins because they all find their source in the unity of the
vital force. Where one maxim is not totally applicable another maxim may
take its place. It is difficult to tell whether a patient is improving or
declining from just one factor alone. To form a proper prognosis it must be
supported by several confirmatory symptoms.

Perhaps one of the symptoms appears to be moving downward but the
others are moving inward toward the more important organs while the mental
state and the vitality are declining. This would cast great doubt on the
idea that the patient is getting better. Perhaps an old local pathology
remains while other older symptoms have already been removed. This may be
one of the exceptions to the rule Hahnemann spoke of in The Chronic
Diseases. If the patient has improved emotionally, has more energy and
other symptoms are being relieved in an orderly manner, the cure is still
progressing in the right direction.

The reversing of the order of symptoms is the basis of the direction of
cure because it inherently includes the return of old unresolved states as
well as the movement from within to without, from the most important to the
less important, and from above to below when the disease clearly developed
this way. This process also includes a beneficial change in the mental
state, an increased sense of well-being and increased vitality.

What is true for psora is also true for sycosis and syphilis, etc.
Sycosis may start with suppressed gonorrhea and/or burnt off HPV warts and
progress to organic pathology in inner vital organs. In this case the
internal symptoms would be the first to be removed, and in some cases the
suppressed discharge or burnt off warts may return before being completely
cured. If syphilis began with contact of the sexual parts and progress to
the brain then the process of cure would first start in the brain and
progress from within to without and from above to below to the skin of the
sexual glands. Sometimes the organism is so suppressed and weakened that
it cannot reproduce the original primary symptoms. In this case, the
organism may produce a surrogate eruption or discharge that takes the place
of the original symptoms as best as possible. A similar process is
witnessed in the TB miasm and cancer diathesis, etc.

That beneficial externalizations take place during the process of cure
is well documented. For example, Hering had a case of where the syphilitic
chancre was suppressed and the patient developed more symptoms. He tried
several remedies but nothing really worked. Then he gave syphiline as an
intercurrent nosode and the old suppressed chancre came out . After this
externalization the cure was completed by remedies that formerly did not
work. This demonstrates the symptom “When well chosen remedies do not work”
and role of the chronic intercurrent nosode in removing obstacles to the cure.

The best cure is simply the rapid restoration of health without any
excessive remedy actions. When the patient is healing they usually feel
better emotionally with more energy. Any return of old symptoms and
eliminations are often so slight that they are hardly noticeable and do not
bother the individual. The old symptoms that manifest the strongest are
often the symptoms that were heavily suppressed and closely connected to
the development of pathology. This is a very important moment in the cure
that should not be misunderstood. Such symptoms should pass through quickly
and be followed by an increased sense of well-being and more vitality.

When old symptoms return that are *stronger and more prolonged than the
original symptoms - this is a sign of remedy caused aggravation*. For
example, a person may have originally suppressed a skin eruption that was
the size of a walnut. What if the skin symptom returns and spreads all over
there body? Some persons would sign that this is a "good sign". The truth
is that this is a excessive medical action caused too large a dose, too
high a potency and/or repeating the remedy when it is not needed. These
reactions are not in harmony with Hahnemann's teachings on a rapid, gentle
and permanent cure.

Some of the crises in Kent's cases were actually excessive aggravations
caused the posology mistakes. This is because Kent did not believe that the
size of the dose (1 or 1000 pills) mattered in the action of a remedy and
tended to give high C potencies. Hahnemann taught that the more accurate
the remedy, and the higher the potency, the MORE the size of the dose
matters! I have been pointing this for many, many years. Nevertheless, Kent
was a great homoeopath who cure many 1000s of persons (most without
excessive crisis). We all make our mistakes and it is best if others learn
from them. Let those who are perfect be the first to cast stones. No such
persons exists. Those who live in glass houses should not throw rocks!

Patients do not need to experience all the pains they suffered in the
past or every eliminations and eruptions. Many times the symptoms are
relieved in a order fashion without the return of old symptoms or
externalizations. Prolong reactions are a sign of over medication and
signal to be very careful with the remedy, dose and potency. If such
conditions do arise it is important to know what they mean and what to do
about them. To call them a "healing crisis" and let the patient suffer
while continuing to do the same thing is not the proper way forward. If the
over reaction is mild enough one only needs to wait and watch for the
improvement to come. In some very strong crisis one may have to intervene
with a remedy or remedies to correct the situation.

Lastly, I would like to say that there is no reason to throw out the
baby (the homoeopathic maxims on the direction of cure) with the bath water
(excessive reactions due to improper posology and case management). The
direction of cure as introduced by Hahnemann and expanded upon by Hering
has been observed 10,000s of times over a 160 year period and proved its
worth in the clinic. For this reason it is best to take good care of the
baby, and of course, change the bath water when necessary.

Similia Minimus
Sincerely, David Little

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"It is the life-force which cures diseases because a dead man needs no more
medicines." - Samuel Hahnemann

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